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Acne is a common skin condition that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. It typically manifests as pimples, blackheads, whiteheads, or cysts, and commonly affects areas of the skin with a high concentration of oil glands, such as the face, chest, back, and shoulders.

Acne can range from mild to severe and can have various causes, including hormonal changes, genetics, certain medications, and environmental factors.

Here are some key characteristics of acne:

  Types of Lesions:

1.  Comedones (Blackheads and Whiteheads): These are non-inflammatory lesions that occur when hair follicles become clogged with oil and dead skin cells. Blackheads are open comedones, while whiteheads are

2.  closed comedones.Papules: These are small, raised bumps that are typically red and inflamed.

3.  Pustules: Similar to papules, pustules are small bumps filled with pus.

4.  Nodules: Nodules are larger, deeper, and more solid lesions that develop beneath the surface of the skin.

5.  Cysts: Cysts are large, pus-filled lesions that are often painful and can cause scarring.

Causes of Acne:

Excess Oil Production: Increased production of oil (sebum) by the sebaceous glands can contribute to the development of acne.

Clogged Pores:

When oil and dead skin cells accumulate in hair follicles, they can block the pores and create an environment conducive to bacterial growth.Bacteria:

Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a type of bacteria that normally resides on the skin, can multiply rapidly in clogged pores, leading to inflammation and acne lesions.

Hormonal Changes: Hormonal fluctuations, such as those that occur during puberty, menstruation, pregnancy, or while taking hormonal medications, can influence oil production and contribute to acne development.

Genetics: Family history plays a role in determining an individual's predisposition to acne. If one or both parents had acne, their children are more likely to experience it as well.

Treatment Options:

Procedures: Dermatological procedures such as chemical peels, microdermabrasion, Light therapy, and extraction of comedones can be effective for treating acne and reducing acne scarring. Lifestyle Changes: Adopting a skincare routine that includes gentle cleansing, moisturizing, and sun protection, as well as avoiding excessive scrubbing, picking, and squeezing of acne lesions, can help manage and prevent acne breakouts. 

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